حمل و نقل دريايي
حمل و نقل دريايي
بنادر و كشتيراني

 Container stowage plans

Working stowage plans are drawn up to assist in advance planning. Master planners definitively document the positioning of containers on board.

The bay-row-tier system follows a system of numerical coordinates relating to length, width and height. The stowage space of the container on board the ship is unambiguously stated in numbers and is (almost always) recorded in the shipping documents. It is then also possible to establish at a later date where the container was carried during maritime transport.

Principle of bay-row-tier coordinates

According to this principle, bays are the container blocks in the transverse direction, rows are the lengthwise rows and tiers are the vertical layers.

Thirty-eight 20' container bays on a ship

Theoretically, the thirty-eight bays could be numbered continuously from 1 to 38. However, that would only be sensible if only 20' containers could actually be loaded 

Nineteen 40' container bays on a ship

If the ship could only transport 40' containers, the nineteen bays could be numbered continuously from 1 to 19.

Bay numbering system

Since, however, the ship can transport both 20' and 40' containers, the bay spaces for 20' containers are numbered throughout fore to aft with odd numbers, i.e. in this case 01, 03, 05 and so on up to 75. The bay spaces for 40' containers are numbered throughout with even numbers: 02, 04, 06 and so on up to 74.
The purple 20' container in the first bay has the bay number 01. The light-brown 20' container in the second bay has the bay number 03 and the light-blue 40' container, which occupies a space in the first and second bays, has the bay number 02. The magenta-colored container has the bay number 25, the dark-green number 27 and the light-green number 26.
To illustrate a cross-section through a bay, one needs to imagine that one is standing in front of or behind the ship.

In the case of bay plans, the respective bay is always
  viewed from behind.  

The rows of containers on a ship are numbered with even numbers from the center leftward and odd numbers from the center rightward.

Row numbering where there is an even number of rows

Where there is an odd number of rows, the middle row is numbered 00.

                          Row numbering where there is an odd number of rows

Numbering of the port rows on board ship

On close inspection, the photograph shows left-hand row 16, which is designed to be filled with containers only on deck, and rows 14, 12, 10, 08, 06, which may be filled both on deck and in the holds. Rows 04, 02, 00, 01 and 03 are likewise designed to be occupied in the hold and on deck. However, the hatch covers are already on in this case.

                               Numbering of the starboard rows on board ship

Rows 05, 07, 09, 11 and 13 are still empty in this bay. Row 15 is designed only for on deck occupation, and is still free in this bay.

                                      Row numbers of the aft bay of a ship

The container tiers are numbered with even numbers, starting from the bottom. The conventional way is to start with 02 in the hold and then count up with 04, 06 etc. In the case of deck cargoes, it is conventional to start numbering with 80 or 82. There are sometimes slight differences between ships.

                             Numbering of vertical container layers, or tiers                             

 On this ship, the containers standing directly on the main deck are numbered 80 and those standing on the hatches are number 82. The number is incremented by two for each higher layer.

These bay, row and tier numbers are noted in the bay plans.

Bay plan

The loaded containers, with their alpha prefix, their container numbers, the port of destination or discharge and other important details are noted in the bay plans.

Color-labeled containers in a bay plan

According to the bay-row-tier system, the colored containers were given the following stowage space numbers:

a 20' container in the red-colored slot:    531212

  • a 40' container in the blue-colored slot:    540788
  • a 20' container in the green-colored slot:  551184

The system illustrated is the most widely used. However, other numbering systems do exist, in which the coordinates are stated in a different order, for example row-bay-tier systems and similar combinations. On ro/ro ships,  the slots are usually organized along lanes running lengthwise. In individual cases and if required, such information may be obtained from shipping companies, cargo-handling companies or other competent persons. 

Resource: containerhandbuch.de

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Download Container Carrying Vessels

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Container design and types

Over 50 percent of the containers available internationally belong to shipping companies. Alongside these are a large number of leasing companies, which lease their containers both to shipowners and to direct customers. Containers belonging to forwarders tend to carry dry and liquid bulk goods, for which bulk and tank containers are mostly used. Specific details about the appearance of the containers, their external and internal dimensions, their weights and volumes, temperature control, cargo securing equipment and other special features may in general be found in the brochures published by the respective companies. Of necessity, the following can only deal with a few types of container.
According to DIN ISO 4346 of January 1996, a distinction may be drawn between the following types:

  • General purpose containers
  • Bulk container
  • Named cargo containers
  • Thermal containers
  • Open-top containers
  • Platform containers
  • Tank containers
  • Air/surface containers

Further distinctions are drawn within these groups depending on design and principal characteristics. Information relating to the respective code, the group and type code, is to be found in Section 3.4 "Size and type codes".
Over the years, expressions have become established which do not always correspond to the standards or which are used in addition to the standard expressions. Some of these need to be explained.

The term standard container was used for the first containers in their basic form. As these were closed and were primarily suitable for the loading of general cargo, they were/are also known as general purpose containers, dry cargo containers or box containers. The initial height of 8' has already very nearly been consigned to history. Most box containers have an external height of 8' 6". Unventilated general purpose containers have openings on either one or both end(s).


                          Unventilated general purpose containers of sheet steel

 The two steel containers of virtually identical construction can be designated standard containers. Both containers have an external height of 8'6" and no gooseneck tunnel. This is stated in coding 2210 on the one hand and 22G1 on the other. Both containers have forklift pockets and straddle carrier recesses.


                                                     Vents in a container

Containers equipped with such vents also count as unventilated general purpose containers, although they have small vents in the upper part of the cargo space.


20' plywood container with vents in the top side rail

This container too falls into the category of "unventilated general purpose container" although individual vents are provided all the way along the upper part of the cargo space.


Containers with end doors and side doors occupying the entire length

Another subgroup of unventilated general purpose containers specified in DIN EN ISO 4346, January 1996, has "openings at one or both end(s) plus full openings on one or both sides".


Container with end wall doors and partial openings at the side

Another subgroup consists of container with "openings at one or both end(s) plus partial openings on one or both sides".
The expression high-cube container originally covered all containers higher than 8' 6". The expression is now used in practice almost only ever for containers which have an external height of 9' 6". Particular attention needs to be given to possible height restrictions when these containers are carried by for road and rail. It may be necessary to use special chassis or carrying cars.


Comparison of a high-cube container (9' 6") with an 8' 6" container

The yellow and black marking on the top edges of the high-cube container serves as a warning about its height. More details about operational markings are given in Section 3.5.


40' Container: left 8'6" high, right 9'6" high (high-cube)

40'-Containers have a larger volume-to-payload ratio than 20' containers, i.e. they are suitable for goods with a higher cargo stowage factor.
Open-sided containers (OS) have solid end walls and a solid roof panel. The sides may be closed at the bottom by folding down wooden, aluminum profile or steel sheet side walls, which may be divided into sections. Roof bow holders and roof bows are provided for the upper part, which may be covered with tarpaulins. The container is packed from the side. Open-sided containers also exist which are open only on one side. If bars are positioned over one open side, the containers can be used for transporting livestock. Another variant is the "folding side wall" container, a type of inland container.


Open-sided container, here in the form of a "tilt" container with end wall door

As is clear from the pictures, open-sided containers are also available with doors at the rear of the container.
The statement found in many brochures to the effect that "lateral load securing consists of planks, which are suspended between the removable central support and the corner posts" is not to be trusted. It is essential to check what forces these structures can absorb.
Open-top open-sided containers (OTOS) combine the features of open-sided and open-top containers, i.e. the roofs and sides are open and need to be covered with tarpaulins.

Since it is American transport that gave rise to the 8' wide standard overseas container, these containers are not suitable for the interchangeable pool pallets used in Europe, which have dimensions of 800 mm x 1,200 mm. To counter this problem, pallet-compatible containers 2.50 m in width have been constructed, which must not, however, be confused with the pre-existing inland containers 2.50 m in width.


Pallet-compatible 40' containers

                                       20' x 8' 6" container with side doors


2.50 m wide 20' inland containers provided by DB (German Railroads)   

20' x 8'6" container with two end wall doors 

General purpose container - special design with side doors

10' wide general purpose container

General purpose containers with special features are intended to make it possible to transport particular cargoes which could not otherwise be safely transported without damage. Containers for hanging garments belong to this group: they are equipped with clothes rails which are attached to special supporting bars. Textiles, hanging on coat-hangers, can be carried in these containers.
Passively ventilated containers, also known as ventilated containers, hardly differ from standard containers in external appearance. They are used for the most part to transport organic cargoes with high moisture contents, such as coffee and cocoa beans. Special equipment is intended to ensure that, as far as possible, sweat is prevented from forming. In general parlance, the containers are also named after the type of cargo carried in them, hence the widespread use of the expression coffee container. There are two basic variants:

  • Containers with natural ventilation use pressure differences between the internal and external air for air exchange purposes. Warm air rises in the container and exits at the top through the roof ventilation strips. Cooler external air then enters through the floor ventilation strips.
  • Forced ventilation containers use fans and air ducts and/or ventilation flaps to achieve the necessary air exchange.

Container vent slots or air openings are often constructed as a labyrinth to prevent the penetration of spray or precipitation. Often, there are openings in the bottom and top side rails, which form regular air ducts. Sometimes, only relatively small, perforated areas are provided at regular intervals in the outer skin.
DIN EN ISO 6346, January 1996, lists ventilated general purpose containers under Code V, allocating to them either group code VH or type codes such V0, V2 or V4. A distinction is drawn between:

  • Containers with non-mechanical ventilation at the lower and upper parts of the cargo space
  • Containers with mechanical ventilation installed in the container and
  • Containers with mechanical ventilation located outside the container.


                               General purpose containers with non-mechanical ventilation

Non-mechanical ventilation at the upper and lower parts of the container

General purpose containers with mechanical ventilation installed in the container

There are plenty of other designs of general purpose container, in addition to those described above. A more unusual example is the container illustrated below.

General purpose container with flaps on the end and side walls

Dry bulk containers or bulk containers may be used to transport loose, free-flowing goods. DIN EN ISO 6346 of January 1996 distinguishes, under Code B, between the group codes BU and BK as well as various type codes for non-pressure-resistant dry bulk containers which are closed or air-tight and dry bulk containers with horizontal or tipping discharge pressure-resistant at test pressures respectively of 150 kPa and 265 kPa.


Loading hatches and discharge outlets in different bulk containers

Externally, normal bulk containers are of identical construction to standard containers except for the loading hatches and discharge outlets. The loading hatches or domes are arranged in the roof.
To gain access to these, some containers are provided with swivelable ladders. To prevent contact between the cargo and the container walls, "inlets" or liner bags may be introduced into the containers and fixed in place. The unloading hatches are normally at one of the ends, generally incorporated into the doors. Sometimes, short hoses are also incorporated, so as to be able to direct the cargo as it is unloaded. Less frequently, the discharge outlets are arranged at the side. In all the above cases, unpacking is achieved by the force of gravity, generally assisted by tipping the containers.

Chassis with tipping equipment for emptying bulk containers

Some special dry bulk containers resemble tank containers. In addition to emptying by gravity, some containers are available which may be emptied by means of compressed air.

                            Bulk container with compressed air-assisted emptying

Resource: containerhandbuch.de

ارسال در تاريخ یکشنبه 11 مرداد1388 توسط امیر علیان

Container flows

 The huge investments made in containerization have paid off and container traffic is still continuing to grow. Although growth will not be as unbridled as in the past, it will continue until all conventional transport operations have, within a container's limits of capacity and weight, been containerized.
By then, it is estimated that there will be some 8000 ships in operation with a total slot capacity of nine to ten million standard containers. There will be approximately the same number of containers ashore being packed or unpacked, awaiting stuffing or unstuffing or being transferred. The majority of these containers are standard 20' box containers. While there are special containers for many applications, growth rates for these are not significant.
From the standpoint of container traffic, it would be ideal for there to be a balance between incoming and outgoing containers in a particular region, not only in terms of numbers, but also in terms of container type and weight. Unfortunately, such a balance is not achievable. There will thus always be empty containers to be transported in one direction or another. From the shipping company's standpoint, general purpose containers usable in any circumstances would be a major advantage. Forwarders, on the other hand, would prefer special containers if they could be carried at identical cost, as packing and securing is much easier in a special container than in a standard container.
For example, steel sheet in coils can very quickly be loaded onto coil containers and straightforwardly secured. They are rather more difficult to pack and secure on flatracks, while they are particularly difficult to pack and secure in box containers. Shipowners accepting containers loaded with coils for transport to Colombia would, if the rolls of sheet steel were shipped in coil containers, also have to take a large number of empty standard ventilated containers to Colombia in order to transport coffee from Colombia to Europe. Moreover, the coil containers, which are of no further use in Colombia, would have to be transported empty to somewhere where they could be used again. As a result, steel sheet in coils will be transported to Colombia in "coffee containers" which are less suitable for carrying such cargoes.
Another example: in order to save on the higher freight costs associated with using tank containers, flexitanks are placed inside normal standard box containers, the walls of which are frequently damaged by surging of the liquid in the flexitanks.
A further example: containers exported from Europe to East Asia are, on average, heavier than those imported from East Asia. If it is to be possible to export the bulkier cargoes from East Asia, empty containers will have to be transported to East Asia. If many 40' containers are required to carry "light" cargoes from East Asia to Europe, it is sensible also to use these containers in Europe to carry "heavy" cargoes to East Asia. Users of these containers get plenty of transport space, the volume of which is not actually required, plus a "securing problem" because such containers cannot be tightly packed.
The majority of the world's container stocks are owned by shipping companies. Quite a few are, however, leased in both large and small numbers to shipowners or other interested parties by leasing companies. Some forwarders ship goods in their own containers, but these are generally special containers for bulk cargoes, tank containers for chemicals or beverages or coil containers for the steel industry etc.

Resource: containerhandbuch.de

ارسال در تاريخ یکشنبه 11 مرداد1388 توسط امیر علیان

کارکرد بارنامه (B/L):


بارنامه سندی است که توسط حمل کننده یا نماینده او امضا می شود و بیانگر این است که کالاهایی که نوع، کمیت و شرایط آن ذکر شده است، برای حمل دریافت شده اند و یا بر روی کشتی که عازم مقصد مشخصی است بارگیری شده اند. بارنامه رسید کالا می باشد و بیانگر شرایط و مفادی است که تحت آن کالا حمل می شود.

بارنامه به عنوان یک سند کلیدی در کشتیرانی و حمل و نقل چند کاربرد دارد. از جمله:

1)     نشان دهنده قرارداد حمل است (Evidence of contract of carriage)

2)     رسید کالا است (The receipt of goods)

3)     سند مالکیت کالا است (Document of title to the goods)1


ادامه مطلب...
ارسال در تاريخ یکشنبه 7 تیر1388 توسط امیر علیان

(منبع: وبسایت اداره کل بنادر بوشهر)

کنوانسیونهای بین المللی ایمنی و نجات دریایی:

1) کنوانسیون بین المللی ایمنی جان و نجات افراد در دریا (SOLAS) دریافت فایل

2) کنوانسیون بین المللی جستجو و نجات دریایی (SAR) دریافت فایل

3) کنوانسیون سازمان ملل متحد در رابطه با حقوق دریا (UNCLOS) دریافت فایل

4) کنوانسیون بین المللی نجات دریایی (SALVAGE) دریافت فایل


کنوانسیونهای بین المللی پیشگیری و مقابله با آلودگی محیط زیست دریایی

1) کنوانسیون بین المللی جلوگیری از آلودگی ناشی از کشتی ها (MARPOL) دریافت فایل

2) کنوانسیون بین المللی آمادگی، مقابله و همکاری در برابر آلودگی نفتی (OPRC) دریافت فایل

3) کنوانسیون بین المللی مسئولیت مدنی ناشی از خسارت آلودگی نفتی (Civil Liability) دریافت

4) پروتکل 1996 به کنوانسیون جلوگیری از آلودگی دریایی ناشی از تخلیه مواد زائد و مواد دیگر



کنوانسیونهای بین المللی حمل و نقل کالا 

1) کنوانسیون بین المللی کانتینر های ایمن (CSC) دریافت فایل

2) کنوانسیون بین المللی تسهیل ترافیک دریایی (FAL) دریافت فایل

3) دستورالعمل حمل، تخلیه و بارگیری کالای خطرناک دریافت فایل


ارسال در تاريخ شنبه 6 تیر1388 توسط امیر علیان

                 Types of Bills of Lading                   

انواع بارنامه های دریایی  


  • از نظر موقعیت کالا


    1. بارنامه دریایی کالای بارگیری شده  («B/L» Shipped Bill of Lading)

نشان دهنده این است که کالا توسط متصدی حمل تحویل گرفته شده و در کشتی بارگیری شده است.بر روی چنین بارنامه ای عبارت «Shipped» یا «On Board» قید می شود.

    1. بارنامه دریایی کالای دریافت شده  (Received for Shipment B/L)       

نشان دهنده این است که کالا توسط متصدی حمل، برای حمل دریافت شده اما بارگیری نشده است. در عمل، بانکها از قبول چنین بارنامه ای خودداری می کنند مگر اینکه در قرارداد بین خریدار و فروشنده، اعتبار آن مورد پذیرش واقع شود.


  • از نظر تعداد وسیله حمل

ادامه مطلب...
ارسال در تاريخ چهارشنبه 17 آبان1385 توسط امیر علیان
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